I do not understand. When I have started on linux, 25 floppies were enough for a full installation (including latex and X) on my big HD (120MB). How a striped down version of bash, coreutils&co and guile could require 120MB ?
Stage0's binary seed is a monitor, a program that lets you twiddle data in hex into memory addresses (in hex).
Code injected into the monitor can do the next best thing, a similar program that loads text files with hex into binaries and skips ends of lines after a comment marker starts.
As such, the initial stuff in the stage0 project is further programs that are still in my view blobs, but instead of binary blobs they're plain text hex blobs with comments documenting the assembler equivalent and what's going on.
From there there are iterations of having hex files (hex 1 and hex2) with increasing complexity of symbol tables so references can be made to addresses and relative jumps by symbols.
From there stage0 project makes the leap to "stage1" and there are things like basic editors, file concatenation tools, macro based assembler and so . It all ends with a C-subset (M2-planet) compiler written in assembler.
Work is in progress to rewrite the scheme interpreter mes in M2-planet instead of normal C. The c compiler mescc (written in scheme) can build tcc and onward to gcc.
There's bootstraps along these lines for a fantasy machine called knight and there's x86 versions and maybe some other archs in the works.
I'm excited by the idea that I could use really old GNU/Linux distro CDs that I trust with python2.3+ as a bootstrap path and eventually with some other work even use old power macs with MacOS X that included python2.3+ as another cool place to bootstrap the free world.
Though the kernel itself might sit at ~60 MB (depending on compile-time options), and you might need to addd another 120MB for the firmware.
Of course, this can be stripped down a lot if you decide to taylor the kernel to your system (less drivers, etc).
To answer GP, a full texlive installation takes around 2GB on my system. That's mostly fonts, but also packages, tools and documentation.
I take the bloat for convenience, because I can afford a few extra GBs nowadays. If you want to go for minimalism, you still can (and even reach smaller footprints than back then), but that's no longer the mainstream option. Not when a GB is a few cents.
Does Guix use the Linux kernel or Hurd? In any case, I can understand kernel growth. There are a lot of new drivers, new and old architectures (386 machines were supported in Linux until a few years back; and there's still a fork that does), all the new file systems, all the new networking and cgroup isolation. You can build a minimal kernel without a lot of that stuff, and it will still run on older embedded hardware. But just having a large kernel source and large default kernels/initrds isn't bloat so much as supporting a lot of hardware possibilities.
> Our goal is to provide a practical 100% free software distribution of Linux-based and other variants of GNU, with a focus on the promotion and tight integration of GNU components, and an emphasis on programs and tools that help users exert that freedom.
There's a significant difference between bootstrap binaries and the actual distro binaries and this thread seems to be conflating the two. Out of curiosity, does anyone know how big Alpine's set of bootstrap binaries are? This article estimated Debian's to be ~550MB. It would be interesting to know which distro has the least amount of stuff taken for granted.
And lots of hardware drivers, for lots of potential hardware I assume as well. I bet Gentoo could be setup to be entirely minimal by removing uneeded things from the distro, not sure if it's known for that.
I'd be curious about comparing the resolution, color depth and compression levels of those images, and the bitrate/compression levels/codec of those sounds. Let's take one wallpaper. Win95 must have included a what, max 1024x768 wallpaper size? Assuming identical compression and color depths, that's still 786432 pixels total, compared to the 4K wallpapers we get today with 8294400 pixels - a larger than 10x increase. That's vastly oversimplifying, as a 10x pixel count doesn't directly translate to a 10x file size, but still, that's just for one image.
Pretty sure sounds in Win95 were MIDI, which aren't even actual audio files.
Dayum...just how far do the turtles go? Even when they reach full source bootstrap, are they ruminating over concerns about the firmware/BIOS? If those concerns are addressed with an equivalent bootstrap-seeded coreboot, then are there concerns with the silicon? I never even thought someone was taking this level of security seriously enough to actually put the effort into it, but I'm extremely glad to see they are. I can easily see high-security DevOps builds of secrets management stores driven by such a bootstrapped Guix to nearly indefinitely satisfy the provenance-type questions from the regulatory compliance teams I work with.
The project I consulted on was an attempt at a comprehensive system design that replaced everything all the way down to and including the hardware. System software was written in Haskell and in a newly-designed language called Breeze that offered both static and dynamic typing. The dynamic typing was supported by tagged hardware with specialized instructions (that effort included Tom Knight, one of the original designers of Lisp Machines).
The organizing principle was that every piece of code and data was owned by a well-defined system entity with well-defined permissions that were proven correct both statically and dynamically. For example, sending data to an endpoint that did not have the required authorization to receive it was a type error.
The thinking was that the state of the art is so broken (from the point of view of data integrity and security) that it's necessary to start from scratch. The overarching project name, appropriately enough, was "Clean Slate".
If you're worried enough, I think there's some trick where you use multiple different C compilers made by different organizations to build (let's say) gcc. Then you use all those gccs to rebuild gcc in a deterministic way. If all of those rebuilt gccs are byte-for-byte the same, then either it's safe, or all of the initial compilers you used were in cahoots. Depending on who you pick to start, that's arguably very unlikely.
That's why you don't compare the GCC binaries built by different compilers. Instead, you use each of those GCC binaries (which may use different machine code but should implement the exact same functionality) to build another GCC, and you compare those binaries. That should result in identical binaries as long as GCC:
- is deterministic,
- does not invoke undefined behavior, and
- was correctly compiled by the original compilers.
well if you look at #bootstrappable's logs it looks like they are planning on building custom hardware out of TTL chips to eliminate all software/bios/firmware from the bootstrap; which when combined with libresilicon means no place for any attacks to hide.
Well there is when you design signals that play on the physical properties of the silicon and the silicon design is known, think Rowhammer. The next level of this is making permanent modifications to the silicon, e.g. using focused RF signals to change the properties of individual transistors.
Relying on security through obscurity is bad, but you need some obscurity.
Passwords and keyfiles are ultimately a form of security through obscurity.
Malicious firmware concerns might be alleviated with cross-compilation. There might be an assumption that firmware inserting untrusted code only actually inserts trusted code of its native architecture, though even this is no guarantee.
Yes, yes, and no. Also the compilation toolchain depends on GCC. Open silicon designs aren't enough; you need to be able to verify that the design correctly describes the physical hardware you are actually using.
So the only trust anchor remaining are the kernel and the hardware. It seems an attacker has to build a kernel module that detects the bootstrapping process and injects the (self-replicating!) bad code while building the final gcc.
I like the work, but I still don't think the kind of attack mitigated here is practical. OTOH it's nice to have the option (if I was to build/publish my own distribution I would use this as my trust anchor, plus some ancient hardware and Linux 2.4 CDs to build my own bootstrap environment; though as a random guy on the internet I am probably less trustable than e.g. the Debian people).
Not in "production" but I use it on my personal laptop and desktop. I wanted to learn a scheme and I figured what better way than to dedicate all of my home computing time to configuring a system and crying myself to sleep trying to build firefox on it.
If you get firefox working, please share your definition on the nonguix repo. Lack of Firefox is what is currently holding me back from installing Guix on hardware. I don't know anything about package building, but I'd be happy to help collaborate if you need it.
1. I believe icecat is going to update pretty soon to version 68 to track with the latest esr, so perhaps in a week or so please check the main channel for an icecat version that should work with most, if not all, up to date extensions.
2. If I do get Firefox built and packaged then I’ll be more than happy to add it to the nonguix channel. Though I’m strongly considering just creating an unofficial icecat that keeps up with the latest version of Firefox like icecat on windows does. We’ll see what happens after these tears dry.
Icecat is really just a set of scripts to strip out branding from Firefox and packages it with gnu shit, though the gnuzilla project provides the esr version for convenience.
Bitcoin. All bitcoin binary releases going forward are compiled with Guix for reproducibility. (The Bitcoin Core team previously used an in-house guix-like thing that they developed themselves. They switched to guix this year.)
I'm using it on my fileserver, swimmingly. I build the image on my desktop and then swap the boot drive and restart. It replaced some Arch linux hack scripts I was using to do the same, and with much less external tooling.